Java AWS Lambda Functions with Spring Cloud Function

Last Updated:  October 6, 2021 | Published: June 2, 2020

If you are familiar with Spring Boot, you might wonder if you can use this knowledge to write a serverless application using AWS Lambda. While plain Java is enough for simple use cases, it might be helpful to use features of the Spring ecosystem like the WebClient, unified data access with Spring Data, etc. The Spring Cloud Function project makes this possible. We only have to implement one of the Java 8 functional interfaces (Function, Consumer, Supplier), select the AWS adapter and deploy our AWS Lambda function. That's it. In combination with the Serverless Framework, you get a running AWS Lambda function in less than five minutes.

By implementing five different use cases, I'll demonstrate how to use Spring Cloud Function to deploy AWS Lambda functions with ease.

Spring Cloud Function AWS Maven Project Setup

As a baseline for our Maven project, we create an empty Spring Boot Maven project at We can also use Spring Cloud Function without Spring Boot. We opt-in for Spring Boot as we want the same developer experience as developing traditional applications.

On top of our empty Spring Boot skeleton project we add  various AWS, Spring Boot and Spring Cloud dependencies:

Apart from the spring-cloud-function-adapter-aws we add AWS Java libraries and support for JSON and XML.

Besides including all required dependencies, we have to configure the way our .jar file is built. Once we deploy the application bundle to AWS Lambda, we can't rely on the default way the Spring Boot Maven plugin packages our project.

We have to create a shaded .jar (you can find a good explanation of shading dependencies here and here).  For this purpose we use the Maven Shade Plugin and configure the build section of our pom.xml as the following:

Furthermore, we use the Spring Boot Thin Launcher to optimize the size of the .jar file. You can read more about this experimental feature on GitHub. For this example, the thin layout reduces the size of the artifact by almost 50% (39 MB to 20MB).

While building the application with mvn package, Maven now outputs two .jar files. For deploying the application to AWS only the shaded build artifact is important. In our case that's: spring-cloud-function-aws-1.0.0-shaded.jar

Introduction to Spring Cloud Function

Before we write our first AWS Lambda with Spring Cloud Function, let's take a look at the key features of Spring Cloud Function.

The documentation states the following goals about this Spring Cloud project:

  • Promote the implementation of business logic via functions.
  • Decouple the development lifecycle of business logic from any specific runtime target so that the same code can run as a web endpoint, a stream processor, or a task.
  • Support a uniform programming model across serverless providers, as well as the ability to run standalone (locally or in a PaaS).
  • Enable Spring Boot features (auto-configuration, dependency injection, metrics) on serverless providers.

It abstracts away all of the transport details and infrastructure, allowing the developer to keep all the familiar tools and processes, and focus firmly on business logic.

In a nutshell, you simply write either a Java 8 Function, Supplier or Consumer, make use of well-known Spring Boot features, select an adapter for your cloud provider (e.g. AWS, Azure, etc.), and get a running function without caring about provisioning hardware (aka. serverless).

That's simple, isn't it?

What's left is to pick the right AWS Request Handler provided by the Spring Cloud Function AWS adapter. There are multiple to choose from and we'll cover most of them throughout the different examples:

  • FunctionInvoker
  • SpringBootRequestHandler (deprecated since version 3.1)
  • SpringBootRequestStreamHandler
  • SpringBootKinesisEventHandler (deprecated since version 3.1)
  • SpringBootApiGatewayRequestHandler (deprecated since version 3.1)

All of them use either the RequestHandler or RequestStreamHandler interface of the underlying AWS Lambda Java dependency.

FYI: In a previous blog post I developed an AWS Lambda function while implementing one of the plain AWS Java interfaces.

A Short Note About the Deployment

Throughout the following examples, we're using Serverless to deploy the functions to AWS Lambda. We won't cover a detailed introduction to the Serverless framework as part of this article. Consider one of my previous blog posts about AWS Lambda to get used to it. It makes deploying an AWS Lambda function really convenient.

Our serverless.yml setup looks like the following:

Besides the standard region and runtime configuration for AWS Lambda, we're adding an IAM role statement to access S3 from our Lambda function later on. It's important to use at least 1024 MB of memory and a timeout of 10 seconds, as the first invocation (cold start), may take some time.

With the package attribute, we point to the shaded .jar file which will be uploaded to AWS for each deployment.

We'll add the specific function configuration as part of each upcoming section. Make sure to get familiar with Serverless before continuing.

AWS Lambda Function to Uppercase a String

Let's start with a simple use case, the Hello World of writing functions: uppercasing a String.

Within our Spring Boot application, we define a Function<String, String> and make it available to the Spring context using the @Beanannotation:

For the AWS Lambda handler, we're choosing FunctionInvoker. This is one of the most generic handlers and implements the RequestStreamHandler interface under the hood. The handler will take care of serializing the payload, invoking the correct function, and deserializing the result.

As we can have multiple functions within the Spring context, we have to tell Spring Cloud Function which function we want to trigger. For the FunctionInvoker we can achieve this with an environment variable SPRING_CLOUD_FUNCTION_DEFINITION.

We enrich our existing serverless.yml with the following function definition:

Once we build the project and deploy it to AWS (using serverless deploy), we can invoke it with either Serverless or the AWS Console:

Java AWS Lambda Function to Generate Random UUIDs

Next, let's add an example of using the Supplier interface.

This is relevant for use cases where it's not necessary to consume a value but only return one:

For this example, we'll use the SpringBootRequestHandler which we can extend to define the input and output types of our processing:

Please note that the SpringBootRequestHandler  handler is deprecated since Spring Cloud Function 3.1.0 in favor of the FunctionInvoker handler.

The input type is Void in this case, as we don't care about any incoming value and just produce a random String.

We can now use our EmptyInputHandler as the handlerand have to specify which function we want to invoke using  the FUNCTION_NAME environment variable in this case.

Invoking the AWS Lambda without any input returns the random UUID:

Java AWS Lambda Function to Process S3 Events

For our next example, we want to make use of the Consumer interface to only consume values but don't return anything.

For a realistic use case, we'll trigger the function whenever a file is uploaded to an S3 bucket:

The handler for this processing looks like the following:

With Serverless we can now configure the event on which the Lambda is triggered:

… and create the following output on each upload:

AWS Lambda behind an API Gateway Part I

As AWS Lambda functions can also be behind an API Gateway and triggered by HTTP calls, let's add an example for this.

Let's say we want a REST API endpoint /persons to process and store Person entities somewhere:

Within the processing, we get access to the serialized Java object and can perform any operation, e.g. store it in a database:

Here we're wrapping the input and output types within the Message interface from org.springeframework.messaging. This is not required but as we'll use the SpringBootApiGatewayRequestHandler we can use this wrapper to add metadata (e.g headers) to the response object.

Please note that the SpringBootApiGatewayRequestHandler handler is deprecated since Spring Cloud Function 3.1.0 in favor of the FunctionInvoker handler.

The handler will take care of creating the correct response type (including the statuscode field, etc.) for the API Gateway:

Once you deploy the function with the Serverless framework, you'll receive an HTTP endpoint to trigger your Lambda:

AWS Lambda behind an API Gateway Part II

In the last example, I want to show you how to have more control over the serialization of the incoming payload. For this, we'll use the SpringBootStreamHandler and are going to parse incoming XML payload to our AWS Lambda (behind an API Gateway).

Like the example above, we'll accept entities via a REST API and process them:

The input and output types are coming from the aws-lambda-java-events dependency and represent the payload of the API Gateway. As we are not defining the actual payload type, we can parse the body of the APIGatewayProxyRequestEvent (containing XML as a string) for ourselves.

You can even go further and request the raw InputStream for your function and handle everything for yourself.

The deployment configuration is similar to the other Lambda behind the API Gateway:

Spring Cloud Function for AWS Lambda Conclusion

After reading this blog post, you shouldn't jump into writing your whole application using this approach. Use it wisely where the use case makes sense to write an AWS Lambda function. Whether you use Spring Cloud Function or the Java AWS Lambda interfaces (RequestHandler/RequestStreamHandler) directly, depends on your use case.

There is an overhead when using Spring Cloud Function (bigger .jar files, slow cold starts as we have to start the Spring context), but staying in the well-known Spring ecosystem may also result in more productivity.

While Spring Cloud Function provides a helpful abstraction, the most significant pain point for me, in the beginning, was to find the correct handler for my function. The documentation on them is limited.  Inspecting the source code of each handler in the IDE helped me to understand their differences quickly.

You can find the source code for the examples above on GitHub.

Have fun writing AWS Lambda functions with Spring Cloud Function,


  • Hey Philip,

    Very helpful article.
    However, while trying out a Supplier function with AWS Lambda, I found it does not work. Below are the details:

    My function is:

    Supplier getAllUsers(){
    return () -> new User();

    I have also created a custom handler as per your article:

    public class SupplierRequestHandler extends
    SpringBootRequestHandler {

    When I run it locally, it works, but while running via AWS Lambda, I get this problem:
    Could Not Convert Input: org.springframework.messaging.converter.MessageConversionException
    org.springframework.messaging.converter.MessageConversionException: Could Not Convert Input

    • Hi Denilson,

      you can inject any Spring Bean to the class where you define the @Bean function for AWS Lambda. If your project contains Spring Data JPA, simply add @Autowired to your repository field or use constructor injection.

  • {"email":"Email address invalid","url":"Website address invalid","required":"Required field missing"}